Water & Soil
Iran has numerous large and small rivers but still not enough water for irrigation. the water for some streams pours into the dry central plateau and goes to waste, and great efforts are being made nowadays to control and gather this water behind large and small dams. Iran’s major rivers are the Atrak, the Sefid, and the only river that can be navigated – at least over parts of it- the Karoon. Iran’s other rivers include the Zayandeh which passes through Isfahan; Karkheh and Jarrahi (south-west); and Zarrineh which flows into the Lake Urumiyeh (northwest).
There are many lakes in Iran, large and small, with the largest lake in the world, the Caspian Sea, lying to its north. The lakes include Urumiyeh (4,368 sq km), the largest inland water reservoir of the country with very high salinity; Bakhtagan in Fars (south central) and Howz Soltan near Qom, Iran’ s main islan d s are: Qeshm (1,491 sq km), Kish (89.7 sq km), Lavan (99 sq km); and Khark, Larak, Hormuz, Hangam, Abu Musa, the Greatgr Tonb and the Lesser Tonb, all in the Persian Gulf. It also has other smaller islands both in the south and in the Caspian Sea.